A Short Biography on Some of Europes Most Loved and Hated Monarchs - Pt 4 Queen Mary I
Queen Mary I of England was born in 1516 to Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon and was the first British monarch to rule in her own right. Mary was pronounced queen in 1553 and ruled for five years after the death of Edward VI. Mary was well educated and learned to speak Latin, Spanish, French and Italian. She was also taught Greek, science and music.
1547 saw the death of her father and her half brother Edward VI crowned king. Edward was England's first Protestant monarch; his Parliament's Act of Uniformity prescribed Protestant rites for church services. Mary, wanting to keep her Roman Catholic faith, asked to be allowed to worship in private in her own chapel. Upon being ordered to discontinue this practice, Mary appealed to her cousin, the Emperor Charles V. Charles subsequently threatened to declare war against England if Mary's religious rights were infringed. Mary was never bothered again and was left to worship in private.
Edward died in 1553 whilst Mary was staying at Framlingham Castle in Suffolk. He had no wish for the Crown to go to either Mary or her half sister Elizabeth, so had them both excluded from the line of succession in his will.
One of Mary's first acts after came to power, was to bring the Catholic faith back to England by initially scrapping the religious proclamations of her half brother, Edward VI. Mary replaced the proclamations with the old English laws. Heresy against the church was now punishable by death. The reintroduction of this act earned Mary the nickname, "Bloody Mary". During her short, five-year reign, Queen Mary I had more than 300 subjects burnt at the stake for the act of heresy. The most notable of these was the Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer.
In 1555, in an effort to produce a male heir, Mary married prince Philip II of Spain. This did not go down well with the people, as many viewed Spain as an enemy of England. Twice during her rule, Mary thought she was pregnant with child, displaying all the symptoms. Alas, this was not so as her symptoms were a sign of a false pregnancy. Mary had convinced herself that she was pregnant and the body reacted accordingly.
Following the advice of her husband, Mary allied herself with Spain during the war against France. The subsequent consequences of her actions were that England lost her only and last remaining foothold in the country - Calais. Sadly, in 1558, Philip II left her and went back to Spain to claim the Spanish throne.
Queen Mary I, childless and without a husband was forced to recognize her sister, Elizabeth, an Anglican Protestant, as the next ruler of England. Although Mary tried to persuade her sister to convert and accept the Roman Catholic faith, Elizabeth refused and went on to become Queen Elizabeth I.
England suffered under the leadership of Mary: the economy was in ruin, religious dissent reached its pinnacle and England lost her last foothold in Europe. Jane Austen wrote about Mary: "This woman had the good luck of being advanced to the throne of England, in spite of the superior pretensions, Merit and Beauty of her Cousins Mary Queen of Scotland and Jane Grey. Nor can I pity the Kingdom for the misfortunes they experienced during her reign, since they fully deserved them..."
Mary died at the age of forty-two of influenza, uterine cancer or ovarian cancer at St. James's Palace on 17 November 1558 and is buried in Westminster Abbey beside Elizabeth. The Latin inscription on their tomb translates to "Partners both in Throne and grave, here rest we two sisters, Elizabeth and Mary, in the hope of one resurrection".
I hope you have enjoyed reading about Queen Mary I.
In my next article will learn about the life of Charles II of England.
Best wishes and have a great day
A Guide to Castles of Europe was born from childhood dreams and aspirations. It is my hope to educate and stimulate you into exploring these castles for yourselves.
OPINION: The suspension of the humanities shouldn't come as a shock College Heights Herald
Clark Atlanta University to develop digital humanities infrastructure - Rough Draft Atlanta - Reporter Newspapers + Atlanta Intown
Clark Atlanta University to develop digital humanities infrastructure - Rough Draft Atlanta Reporter Newspapers + Atlanta Intown
The Review: The Humanities' Professional Deformations The Chronicle of Higher Education
Will ChatGPT Kill the Student Essay? The Atlantic
UW Establishes New Center For Arts And Humanities Sheridan Media
Five Theses on the Humanities Crisis | Opinion Harvard Crimson
DO | Humanities on a Deserted Island Cornell University The Cornell Daily Sun
Professor Fiona Devine to be next Vice-President and Dean of Humanities - The University of Manchester
Professor Fiona Devine to be next Vice-President and Dean of Humanities The University of Manchester
Humanities Division welcomes two new associate deans University of California, Santa Cruz
Mass Humanities Launches End of Year Giving Appeal Revere Journal
Arispe presents digital humanities research funded by National Endowment for the Humanities - Boise State University
Arispe presents digital humanities research funded by National Endowment for the Humanities Boise State University
Humanities, amplified | College of Letters & Science, University of Wisconsin-Madison - College Of Letters And Science Uw Madison
Humanities, amplified | College of Letters & Science, University of Wisconsin-Madison College Of Letters And Science Uw Madison
Missouri Humanities 2023 Signature Series “Roots & Routes” The Boone Country Connection
My Love-Hate Relationship with Humanities The Catalyst
COPA receives Georgia Humanities grant for work to document African American history in Coastal Georgia - Mercer University
COPA receives Georgia Humanities grant for work to document African American history in Coastal Georgia Mercer University
Secretary of State, Vermont Humanities and the Center for Cartoon Studies release a 'Freedom and Unity' comic - Vermont Biz
Secretary of State, Vermont Humanities and the Center for Cartoon Studies release a 'Freedom and Unity' comic Vermont Biz
Breezy Taggart to Give Sandeen Lecture at UW Dec. 12 | News University of Wyoming News
University of Alabama debates general education curriculum, could wipe some English, humanities courses - AL.com
University of Alabama debates general education curriculum, could wipe some English, humanities courses AL.com
Miami Dade College Students to Present Projects at Humanities Edge Undergraduate Research Virtual Symposium Dec. 1 - Miami Dade College
Miami Dade College Students to Present Projects at Humanities Edge Undergraduate Research Virtual Symposium Dec. 1 Miami Dade College
Digital Humanities Workshop 2 - The Tech Of It All (Open to all) UNH's College of Liberal Arts
'Writing Beyond the Prison' Amplifies Voice of the Incarcerated and Their Families | | SBU News - Stony Brook News
'Writing Beyond the Prison' Amplifies Voice of the Incarcerated and Their Families | | SBU News Stony Brook News
Lincoln Scholar spotlight: Combining the teachings of the humanities with the disciplines of science - ASU News Now
Lincoln Scholar spotlight: Combining the teachings of the humanities with the disciplines of science ASU News Now
A Love Letter to Bad Art (from a Humanities Major) | Opinion Harvard Crimson
Laura Anne Northup Earns VSU College of Humanities and Social Sciences Excellence Award - Valdosta State University
Laura Anne Northup Earns VSU College of Humanities and Social Sciences Excellence Award Valdosta State University
Registration Opens for Spring 2023 Humanities Seminars University of Arizona News
The Harvard Crimson Harvard Crimson
Interdisciplinary Navigator, Humanities and Social Sciences job with TECHNISCHE UNIVERSITAT DRESDEN (TU DRESDEN) | 319487 - Times Higher Education
Interdisciplinary Navigator, Humanities and Social Sciences job with TECHNISCHE UNIVERSITAT DRESDEN (TU DRESDEN) | 319487 Times Higher Education
'Constant feeling of being an outsider': The experience of minority humanities professors - The State News
'Constant feeling of being an outsider': The experience of minority humanities professors The State News
UNE Center for Global Humanities presents 'A History of Race, Disease, and Diabetes' on Dec. 5 - University of New England
UNE Center for Global Humanities presents 'A History of Race, Disease, and Diabetes' on Dec. 5 University of New England
Norman J. Radow College of Humanities and Social Sciences - Norman J. Radow College of Humanities and Social Sciences
Norman J. Radow College of Humanities and Social Sciences Norman J. Radow College of Humanities and Social Sciences
New Talks and Video Archives @ Various Locations & Chicago Humanities Festival YouTube channel - thirdcoastreview.com
New Talks and Video Archives @ Various Locations & Chicago Humanities Festival YouTube channel thirdcoastreview.com
Humanities West Presents Ramses the Great Commonwealth Club
Call for 7th Intl Congress of Islamic Humanities issued Iran Book News Agency
Teaching Assistant (Applied Psychology), School of Humanities and Social Science job with THE CHINESE UNIVERSITY OF HONG KONG - SHENZHEN | 319330 - Times Higher Education
Teaching Assistant (Applied Psychology), School of Humanities and Social Science job with THE CHINESE UNIVERSITY OF HONG KONG - SHENZHEN | 319330 Times Higher Education
Distinguished professionals to address MSU's fall 2022 graduates | MSUToday | Michigan State University - MSUToday
Distinguished professionals to address MSU's fall 2022 graduates | MSUToday | Michigan State University MSUToday
New Babson Philosophy Professor · Babson Thought & Action Babson Thought & Action
Welcoming Provost and Vice President for Academic Affairs Ann McClellan SUNY Cortland News
The Recorder - Regional Notebook: Dec. 7, 2022 The Recorder
Dr. Edoardo Celeste named 2022 Irish Research Council Early Stage Researcher of the Year | Faculty of Humanities & Social Sciences - Dublin City University
Dr. Edoardo Celeste named 2022 Irish Research Council Early Stage Researcher of the Year | Faculty of Humanities & Social Sciences Dublin City University
Exploring military history through postcards Gadsden Times
Graphic memoirist Alison Bechdel to speak at Yale Yale Daily News
The Real Problem at Wheaton College | James Diddams First Things
'Institutional transformation' Gazette
Happiness class hooks students on more than a feeling - College of Liberal Arts - Colorado State University
Happiness class hooks students on more than a feeling - College of Liberal Arts Colorado State University
N.C. A&T's Aggie Writing Scholars Program Goes Beyond Enhancing Students' Communication - North Carolina A&T
N.C. A&T's Aggie Writing Scholars Program Goes Beyond Enhancing Students' Communication North Carolina A&T
St. Mary's University celebrates University and Law graduates at Fall Commencement - St. Mary's University
St. Mary's University celebrates University and Law graduates at Fall Commencement St. Mary's University
University hosts 'Abolish the Family' book talk Campus Reform
Faculty of medicine learners receive 2022 Vanier scholarships UBC Faculty of Medicine
'Divided City' initiative awards community grants related to urban segregation - The Source - Washington University in St. Louis - Washington University in St. Louis
'Divided City' initiative awards community grants related to urban segregation - The Source - Washington University in St. Louis Washington University in St. Louis
Library hosts discussion on book about 1997 Colebrook murders Concord Monitor
The local arts and culture sector pushed through the pandemic and a racial reckoning. Now they're trying to heal. - theday.com
The local arts and culture sector pushed through the pandemic and a racial reckoning. Now they're trying to heal. theday.com
This Is How the Humanities End | Higher Ed Gamma Inside Higher Ed
Algerian anonymity: The impact of image and language past and present - Washington University in St. Louis
Algerian anonymity: The impact of image and language past and present Washington University in St. Louis
Study: Humanities graduate education is shrinking Inside Higher Ed
Exploring What You Can Do with a Humanities Degree Faulkner University
DO | On Studying the Humanities Cornell University The Cornell Daily Sun
Mellon Grants More Than $10 Million In Funding to Support Ongoing Post-Fiona Recovery Efforts and More in Puerto Rico - Mellon Foundation
Mellon Grants More Than $10 Million In Funding to Support Ongoing Post-Fiona Recovery Efforts and More in Puerto Rico Mellon Foundation
The humanities thrive at STEM-focused universities (opinion) Inside Higher Ed
The Humanities Are Alive and Well at Columbia Columbia University
A Proclamation on National Arts And Humanities Month, 2022 The White House
The top 10 most-regretted college majors — and the degrees graduates wish they had pursued instead - CNBC
The top 10 most-regretted college majors — and the degrees graduates wish they had pursued instead CNBC
Oh, the Humanities! Washington Free Beacon
Mellon Foundation grant will support rethinking of humanities centers | BrandeisNOW - Brandeis University
Mellon Foundation grant will support rethinking of humanities centers | BrandeisNOW Brandeis University
Advanced Olympic Research Grant programme | sportanddev.org sportanddev.org
What Can I Do With a Degree in Humanities? - Seaver Blog | Pepperdine Seaver College - Pepperdine University Newsroom
What Can I Do With a Degree in Humanities? - Seaver Blog | Pepperdine Seaver College Pepperdine University Newsroom
Perspective | The humanities are facing a credibility crisis The Washington Post
Humanities' scholarly infrastructure is vanishing (opinion) Inside Higher Ed
Internationalizing the Humanities | Higher Ed Gamma Inside Higher Ed
Pitt's Humanities Engage program is re-imagining doctoral education University of Pittsburgh
Community read launches Society for the Humanities' 'Repair' theme The College of Arts & Sciences
Humanities & Social Sciences - News Kennesaw State University
City Management Fellowship Program Recruits Four New Fellows for 2022-23 Academic Year | CSUF News - CSUF News
City Management Fellowship Program Recruits Four New Fellows for 2022-23 Academic Year | CSUF News CSUF News
Would-be humanities majors want canonical courses (opinion) Inside Higher Ed
The Year of the Rooster
The Rooster is traditionally considered to be a favourable sign. His crow signals the break of dawn and the beginning of a fresh start, driving away the ghosts and evil spirits of the night.
Propaganda and American Journalism, Born Joined at Birth
Passion was the main stuff of journalism long before the Civil War, the birthplace of modern American journalism. The Press of the American Revolution during the War and before it, was borne of it.
Human Cultural Evolution
If we think about it at this juncture, clearly there is little to commend this Judaeo/ Christian/Islamic God if he is represented by the people who led this church. Pagans have a far better history and stand foursquare and 'head and shoulders' above this God of this often re-written Bible.
Your Souls Purpose Is Found In the Zodiac
Of course, science has explained this to us, and we accept it intellectually, but most of us don't think of ourselves as being born in the sky while riding the earth spaceship.It seems very obvious that since we are part of the heavens all of us are constantly moving through the zodiac and are subject to its magnetic signals.
Medieval Siege Weaponry: Castle Walls Beware
Medieval siege weaponry was required in any self-respecting war leader's arsenal in a time when castles with thick defense walls were common and cities surrounded by large, fortified walls were not out of place.With warfare commonplace, it's little wonder the variety of medieval siege weaponry is great.
Learn How to Solve Problems With a Feng Shui Mirror
A mirror, when becoming a feng shui mirror, can be used to many more things than allowing us to see how we look. Feng shui teaches how a feng shui mirror can be used in order to solve many different problems, and we will describe some of these uses through the next few lines.
Conceptual Art: Who Appreciates It?
Art is sometimes overwhelming. Life as a whole can become overwhelming, and at times I do find myself caught up in its whirlwind of drama.
Game Theory - What Do Game Theory and Improv Theater Have in Common?
"Game" TheoryThis article was inspired by Mick Napier's book ?Improvise: scene from the inside out" in which he draws comparisons between Physics and Improvisation. It made me think - I know a little bit about game theory (I majored in it) and it has the word "game" in it, so chances are it'll have something in common with improvising, which is really nothing else but playing games.
The History of Body Piercings - Ancient and Fascinating Around the World
Body piercings have seen a resurgence of interest in the last ten to twenty years and are becoming more and more a part of the mainstream Western culture. Take a look at any fashion or entertainment magazine and you'll see plenty of well-known celebrities with body piercings like navel rings or a labret.
I, Ego, and Power
I: - A vowel that didn't appear in sacerdotal alphabets for which there is little, or should I say not one IOTA of, reason to hold up for personal glorification. The ego is man's greatest hindrance and his competitiveness possesses him like the demons he has created in his IGNORANCE!I O TORUS:Mathematics has a language so pure it cannot lie.
Astrology : A Science or Superstition?
Human beings have always been curious to know their future. Whenever someone is in difficulty and cannot easily come out of it, he wants to know whether the days of his misery will come to an end at all.
Amber Mysteries Revealed
Amber, the gem of a stone that's not really a gemstone at all, is actually fossilized pine sap. People have collected, traded, carved, and coveted amber for more than 10,000 years.
A Short Biography on Some of Europes Most Loved and Hated Monarchs - Pt 5 Charles II
Born in 1630, Charles II was the second eldest son of Charles I, who spent most of his teenage years fighting parliaments Roundheads until the execution of his father in 1649, and after he agreed to make Presbyterianism the religion of England and Scotland.In 1650, Charles returned to his native Scotland and a year later led an unsuccessful campaign against Cromwell's forces at Worcester.
Nessie, the Beast of the Loch
They were fierce hill tribes in what is now Scotland, and we called them Picts. The name seems to mean "The Painted People" for they were known to love bright body art and multi-coloured clothing.
History and the Cathars (Courtly Love):
This is an entry from my three volume encyclopedia.CRUSADES, CATHARS AND 'COURTLY LOVE': - One of the greatest legacies of the revitalization of the teachings of 'brotherhood' in the 13th century of the Troubadors was sexual and gender respect.
Her Last Day in Court
"Ron, I can't take much more of his sleazy behavior! I really don't think you are going to win this case for me anyway. I've lost everything; at least I can have the pleasure of making sure the jury knows their judge is another sexual power tripper, going in to his chambers to satisfy himself with the bailiff while he screws me over under the law! I don't.
A Hidden Oriental Jewel: 100% Chinese Hand-Made Silk Embroidery
IntroductionDo you know what "silk embroidery is? Do you know what it looks like? Many people I come across in the U.S.
Basic Chinese Pinyin Rules
* Make sure you set your browser encoding correctly to read Chinese words in this article. Chinese Simplified GB2312 is recommended.
How to Create a Multi-Artistic Piece (Article 1 of 2)
In the late 19th century the music world was graced by an artist who would push the boundaries of music and art. Richard Wagner laid the foundation for performance art.
Man and His Machines
A woman creates life from her womb, and man tries to create life through his machines.I have always had a close relationship to machines, any kind of machine.
|home | site map|