Hip Hop History
Rap music originated as a cross-cultural product. Most of its important early practitioners-including Kool Herc, D.J. Hollywood, and Afrika Bambaataa-were either first- or second-generation Americans of Caribbean ancestry. Herc and Hollywood are both credited with introducing the Jamaican style of cutting and mixing into the musical culture of the South Bronx. By most accounts Herc was the first DJ to buy two copies of the same record for just a 15-second break (rhythmic instrumental segment) in the middle. By mixing back and forth between the two copies he was able to double, triple, or indefinitely extend the break. In so doing, Herc effectively deconstructed and reconstructed so-called found sound, using the turntable as a musical instrument.
While he was cutting with two turntables, Herc would also perform with the microphone in Jamaican toasting style-joking, boasting, and using myriad in-group references. Herc's musical parties eventually gained notoriety and were often documented on cassette tapes that were recorded with the relatively new boombox, or blaster, technology. Taped duplicates of these parties rapidly made their way through the Bronx, Brooklyn, and uptown Manhattan, spawning a number of similar DJ acts. Among the new breed of DJs was Afrika Bambaataa, the first important Black Muslim in rap. (The Muslim presence would become very influential in the late 1980s.) Bambaataa often engaged in sound-system battles with Herc, similar to the so-called cutting contests in jazz a generation earlier. The sound system competitions were held at city parks, where hot-wired street lamps supplied electricity, or at local clubs. Bambaataa sometimes mixed sounds from rock-music recordings and television shows into the standard funk and disco fare that Herc and most of his followers relied upon. By using rock records, Bambaataa extended rap beyond the immediate reference points of contemporary black youth culture. By the 1990s any sound source was considered fair game and rap artists borrowed sounds from such disparate sources as Israeli folk music, bebop jazz records, and television news broadcasts.
In 1976 Grandmaster Flash introduced the technique In 1979 the first two rap records appeared: "King Tim III (Personality Jock)," recorded by the Fatback Band, and "Rapper's Delight," by Sugarhill Gang. A series of verses recited by the three members of Sugarhill Gang, "Rapper's Delight" became a national hit, reaching number 36 on the Billboard magazine popular music charts. The spoken content, mostly braggadocio spiced with fantasy, was derived largely from a pool of material used by most of the earlier rappers. The backing track for "Rapper's Delight" was supplied by hired studio musicians, who replicated the basic groove of the hit song "Good Times" (1979) by the American disco group Chic. Perceived as novel by many white Americans, "Rapper's Delight" quickly inspired "Rapture" (1980) by the new-wave band Blondie, as well as a number of other popular records. In 1982 Afrika Bambaataa's "Planet Rock" became the first rap record to use synthesizers and an electronic drum machine. With this recording, rap artists began to create their own backing tracks rather than simply offering the work of others in a new context. A year later Bambaataa introduced the sampling capabilities of synthesizers on "Looking for the Perfect Beat" (1983).of quick mixing, in which sound bites as short as one or two seconds are combined for a collage effect. Quick mixing paralleled the rapid-editing style of television advertising used at the time. Shortly after Flash introduced quick mixing, his partner Grandmaster Melle Mel composed the first extended stories in rhymed rap. Up to this point, most of the words heard over the work of disc jockeys such as Herc, Bambaataa, and Flash had been improvised phrases and expressions. In 1978 DJ Grand Wizard Theodore introduced the technique of scratching to produce rhythmic patterns.
Sampling brought into question the ownership of sound. Some artists claimed that by sampling recordings of a prominent black artist, such as funk musician James Brown, they were challenging white corporate America and the recording industry's right to own black cultural expression. More problematic was the fact that rap artists were also challenging Brown's and other musicians' right to own, control, and be compensated for the use of their intellectual creations. By the early 1990s a system had come about whereby most artists requested permission and negotiated some form of compensation for the use of samples. Some commonly sampled performers, such as funk musician George Clinton, released compact discs (CDs) containing dozens of sound bites specifically to facilitate sampling. One effect of sampling was a newfound sense of musical history among black youth. Earlier artists such as Brown and Clinton were celebrated as cultural heroes and their older recordings were reissued and repopularized.
During the mid-1980s, rap moved from the fringes of hip-hop culture to the mainstream of the American music industry as white musicians began to embrace the new style. In 1986 rap reached the top ten on the Billboard pop charts with "(You Gotta) Fight for Your Right (To Party!)" by the Beastie Boys and "Walk This Way" by Run-DMC and Aerosmith. Known for incorporating rock music into its raps, Run-DMC became one of the first rap groups to be featured regularly on MTV (Music Television). Also during the mid-1980s, the first female rap group of consequence, Salt-N-Pepa, released the singles "The Show Stoppa" (1985) and "Push It" (1987); "Push It" reached the top 20 on Billboard's pop charts. In the late 1980s a large segment of rap became highly politicized, resulting in the most overt social agenda in popular music since the urban folk movement of the 1960s. The groups Public Enemy and Boogie Down Productions epitomized this political style of rap. Public Enemy came to prominence with their second album, It Takes a Nation of Millions to Hold Us Back (1988), and the theme song "Fight the Power" from the motion picture Do the Right Thing (1989),by American filmmaker Spike Lee. Proclaiming the importance of rap in black American culture, Public Enemy's lead singer, Chuck D., referred to it as the African American CNN (Cable News Network).
Alongside the rise of political rap came the introduction of gangsta rap, which attempts to depict an outlaw lifestyle of sex, drugs, and violence in inner-city America. In 1988 the first major album of gangsta rap was released: Straight Outta Compton by the rap group NWA (Niggaz With Attitude). Songs from the album generated an extraordinary amount of controversy for their violent attitudes and inspired protests from a number of organizations, including the FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation). However, attempts to censor gangsta rap only served to publicize the music and make it more attractive to both black and white youths. NWA became a platform for launching the solo careers of some of the most influential rappers and rap producers in the gangsta style, including Dr. Dre, Ice Cube, and Eazy-E.
In the 1990s rap became increasingly eclectic, demonstrating a seemingly limitless capacity to draw samples from any and all musical forms. A number of rap artists have borrowed from jazz, using samples as well as live music. Some of the most influential jazz-rap recordings include Jazzamatazz CD (1993), an album by Boston rapper Guru, and "Cantaloop (Flip Fantasia)" (1993), a single by the British group US3. In the United Kingdom, jazz-rap evolved into a genre known as trip-hop, the most prominent artists and groups being Tricky and Massive Attack. As rap became increasingly part of the American mainstream in the 1990s, political rap became less prominent while gangsta rap, as epitomized by the Geto Boys, Snoop Doggy Dogg, and Tupac Shakur, grew in popularity.
Since the mid-1980s rap music has greatly influenced both black and white culture in North America. Much of the slang of hip-hop culture, including such terms as dis, fly, def, chill, and wack, have become standard parts of the vocabulary of a significant number of young people of various ethnic origins. Many rap enthusiasts assert that rap functions as a voice for a community without access to the mainstream media. According to advocates, rap serves to engender self-pride, self-help, and self-improvement, communicating a positive and fulfilling sense of black history that is largely absent from other American institutions. Political rap artists have spurred interest in the Black Muslim movement as articulated by minister Louis Farrakhan, generating much criticism from those who view Farrakhan as a racist. Gangsta rap has also been severely criticised for lyrics that many people interpret as glorifying the most violent and misogynistic (woman-hating) imagery in the history of popular music. The style's popularity with middle-class whites has been attacked as vicarious thrill-seeking of the most insidious sort. Defenders of gangsta rap argue that no matter who is listening to the music, the raps are justified because they accurately portray life in inner-city America.
Maren Morris is getting the hell out of country music: 'I've said everything I can say' - Los Angeles Times
Opinion | Too Many Kids Quit Music. Is There a Better Way to Teach it? The New York Times
The 10 strangest unsolved mysteries in music history Far Out Magazine
Music & the Spoken Word: Daily care and keeping Church News
What is Amazon Music Live? About Amazon
Yandel Makes History at New York’s Empire State Building & More Uplifting Moments in Latin Music - Billboard
Yandel Makes History at New York’s Empire State Building & More Uplifting Moments in Latin Music Billboard
Pilgrimage Music & Cultural Festival returns to Franklin News Channel 5 Nashville
The Year Lou Reed Gave Up on Music The New York Times
'Time In A Bottle': Jim Croce's music continues to inspire 50 years ... wausaupilotandreview.com
Leading American and International Musical Artists to Perform at ... Department of State
Want to Enjoy Music More? Stop Streaming It. The New York Times
Manuel Medrano, Juan Luis Guerra & More: What’s Your Favorite New Latin Music Release? Vote! - Billboard
Manuel Medrano, Juan Luis Guerra & More: What’s Your Favorite New Latin Music Release? Vote! Billboard
State of Art: Wild Shore New Music returns for 10th season Alaska Public Media News
One-day Down County Jump Music Festival aims to bring roots ... Berkshire Eagle
How to Claim Your Artist Page on Apple Music MUO - MakeUseOf
Music Tonight: Saturday, Sept. 23 | A+E North Coast Journal
Classical music old & new on Boston’s fall calendar Boston Herald
Annual UNK Band Day Parade brings music, competition to ... University of Nebraska at Kearney
Discover Your Major Visit Day: Music News Release | Media Center | Northwest
Midday Music - 9/22/23 WYSO Public Radio
New Music Latin: Listen to Releases From Ricky Martin & Christian Nodal, Roberto Fonseca & More - Billboard
New Music Latin: Listen to Releases From Ricky Martin & Christian Nodal, Roberto Fonseca & More Billboard
Keith Urban announced as first headliner of 2024 VOA Country ... The Cincinnati Enquirer
Music in the Mills highlights local artists | News | channel3000.com Channel3000.com - WISC-TV3
New Music Ensemble – David Dzubay, director; George Lewis ... Visit Bloomington
Grammy-nominated Ingrid Andress adds country music to MSU's ... Mississippi State University
Music Theory Colloquium Series: Andrew Goldman, “Neuroscience ... Visit Bloomington
The Hold Steady, Bobby Rush and others will play at XPoNential, despite Ophelia’s rain and wind - The Philadelphia Inquirer
The Hold Steady, Bobby Rush and others will play at XPoNential, despite Ophelia’s rain and wind The Philadelphia Inquirer
Farrah Hanna is taking on New York and the music industry - University of Virginia The Cavalier Daily
Farrah Hanna is taking on New York and the music industry University of Virginia The Cavalier Daily
Photos: Maximum Ames Music Festival Ames Tribune
Ask Amy: Why do they think I want to hear their annoying music? The Mercury News
City of Hoboken invites residents to the Hoboken Fall Arts & Music ... City of Hoboken (.gov)
Four School of Music Students Shine on the International Stage at ... - Georgia State University News
Four School of Music Students Shine on the International Stage at ... Georgia State University News
4 people assaulted near Berklee College of Music NBC10 Boston
Is mariachi music growing in Lubbock? Band Mariachi Mi Tierra thinks so - KLBK | KAMC | EverythingLubbock.com
Is mariachi music growing in Lubbock? Band Mariachi Mi Tierra thinks so KLBK | KAMC | EverythingLubbock.com
Music schedule for Fall Fest at Schumacher Homestead Bluffton Icon
Music Industry educator and renowned composer and arranger ... Troy University
One to Watch: Sola The Guardian
Day 3 of Louder Than Life music festival in Louisville Courier Journal
How a New Generation Found Os Tincoãs’ Music The New York Times
Niura’s EEG-implemented earbuds scan your brain health and recommend music to your mood - TechCrunch
Oktoberfest returns to Kent with music, food and beer Record-Courier
(VIDEO) The Critics, Fortuna's Battle of the Bands-Winning Teen ... Lost Coast Outpost
Taylor Swift, Beyonce and the Top 25 Platinum Players in Music ... Hollywood Reporter
The big idea: could we use music like medicine? The Guardian
‘The Weekend’ — movies, music and more in Johnson County Shawnee Mission Post
Pryor Flowers brings florals to local music festivals Cherokee Phoenix
IN PHOTOS: The Midnight infuses Marathon Music Works with ... The Vanderbilt Hustler
Tom Hanks Launches Classic Country Music Streaming Station American Songwriter
Artificial intelligence, hip-hop and music commingle at S.F. Symphony San Francisco Chronicle
Country music writer and performer Dean Dillon honored with ... Knoxville News Sentinel
Amazon-Music-Live-Returns-for-Season-Two-With-Performances ... Amazon Press Release
Interested in Improving the Sound of Your Stereo? Consider Records
Introduced in 1982, the compact disc was intended to provide better sound than the 40-year-old long-play record album, popularly known as the LP. Using a laser rather than a diamond needle for playback the compact disc was smaller, more convenient to use, and less susceptible to damage than the LP.
The First The American Idol Kelly Clarkson
There is a lot more to the story that meets the eye, at least, where Kelly Clarkson, the American Idol, is concerned. Her rise to the top of the charts was not an easy one and any struggling singer-wannabe can probably identify with the grit and determination this young pop singer has shown.
Legend Vega Releasing New Pop CD
Legend Vega is scheduled to release her newest CD this summer, Personal Space. Fans characterize Legend's style as a cross between Mariah Carey and a female version of Ricky Martin.
A Guitar Lesson To Help You Test Your Note Knowledge
In this guitar lesson we look at a great way to test your note knowledge of the guitar fretboard. But before we look at that, why even bother learning the notes?Knowing the notes on your guitar fretboard is an essential skill.
Guitar Practice (Part 2) - Does Practice Make Perfect?
You've probably heard the saying "practice makes perfect" and it sounds true enough, but is t really? We all know the importance of practicing a new skill in order to become proficient at it. This is especially true when it comes to playing the guitar, or any other musical instrument for that matter.
Buying A Guitar - Do You Know What To Look For?
Buying a guitar is an important decision that my students have often asked me about. They want to know what they should be looking for.
Setting Up In-House Retail Sales
Now, that you are familiar and likely connected with online music sales sites, such as CD Baby, or combination online/offline retail sites, such as The Orchard, you are probably comfortable in having your music distribution and sales fairly covered.But, what if you could get even more music sales, and even more profitable income?I'm speaking of consigning your product to retail stores, but, with one exception.
Effective Band Rehearsal
If your band is in rehearsals, either preparing for gigging, or practising new songs to add to your repertoire, the chances are you will have to hire a rehearsal room. The costs of hiring a room can soon mount up if you don't organise your time effectively.
1959 Stratocaster Vintage Guitars
Mid 1959 Stratocaster vintage guitars have a slabrosewood fingerboard with white "clay" positiondots. The fingerboard radius of this Fender guitaris 7.
Formation of a Song (Recording)
As industry insiders, we sometimes forget that when discussing the recording process, the rest of the world really has no idea what we are talking about. Hopefully this will provide an explanation of the song formation process in layman's terms so that there may be less disconnect between the professional and the consumer.
The King of the Delta Blues Singers - Robert Johnson Still Stands at the Crossroads
Probably the most enigmatic Singer and Guitarist of the twentieth Century is now one of the most revered and respected of all Musicians who make up the Genre of the 'Blues'. I speak of course about the wonderful Robert Leroy Johnson.
A Quick and Easy Composition Method
Here's the method I use every time I want to capture an idea. I draw out 8-bars (or measures) first.
Review: Medications - All Your Favorite People In One Place
One of the most intriguing aspects of music is how easily it can transform one's mood. The right notes, at the right tempo, and all of a sudden, BAM! You're in a good mood.
What All Do I Have to Know to be a Really Good Piano Player?
Many students ask me a question that goes something like this:"What all do I have to know to be a really good piano player?"The trouble with a question like that is that it ignores individual differences such as talent, motivation, freedom to practice, and a hundred other variables.How much did Mozart have to know? How much did Erroll Garner know? Mozart could play far better than I can when he was 3.
How to Make State-of-the-Art Video Singles Cheaply
When it comes to promoting their new music releases, I have found that most musicians only consider radio as the vehicle for exposing their music to the public.Rarely do they consider publicity, in the form of print media, i.
How to Compose Using ABA Form
ABA form is like a musical sandwich. You have the 2 slices of bread with the contrasting meat and cheese on the inside.
ADIRONDACK versus SITKA SPRUCE
Both of these timbers make great soundboards on flat top acoustic guitars. They have had popularity at different times in history heres the story so far.
Does Your CD Cover $ell (Or Suck)?
Oh, I know the last part of the title (Suck) isn't a very pleasant description to apply to anyone's CD cover. But, in the interest of plain old honesty, and to face our demons head on, I wanted to (again) utilize a worst case scenario that we can only improve from.
Music Downloads: Free & Low Cost Ways For Musicians To Get Their Music Known All Over The World
Music downloads are highly compressed audio files transferred onto a personal computer from an Internet website or P2P (peer to peer) program. From IPOD's to MP3 players galore, music downloading is seen as the fastest way for a musician to get his or her work out to the public.
Hip Hop History
Rap music originated as a cross-cultural product. Most of its important early practitioners-including Kool Herc, D.
|home | site map|